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In countries where the price of labor is low and education outcomes are also low, the uptake of AI will most likely be slowest.


Justice Area(s)

Community Health and Collective Security

Economic Justice

Human Rights

AI Impact(s)

Economic harm and inequity





The Government Artificial Intelligence Readiness Index illustrates that many refugee and migrant countries of origin are ill-equipped to make changes regarding AI. For example, Somalia, Eritrea, Sudan, South Sudan, and the Democratic Republic of Congo are all countries that produce both migrants and refugees, are at the very bottom (last 10) of the index, and are also in the lowest decile of most human development rankings. These countries should be prioritized more in thinking about uptake of trustworthy AI. By contrast, the most preferred countries of destination for migrants and refugees are those with the highest AI readiness ranking.

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Related Issues by Justice Area

Issue 2017

AI systems reflect the culture's bias against the disabled.

The Allegheny County Department of Human Services in the state of Pennsylvania in the United States uses an AI system that residents allege incorrectly flags disabled parents as being neglectful, removing their children from their homes with no actual evidence of neglect. It is currently under investigation by the United States Department of Justice.

Community Health and Collective Security Disability Justice Human Rights
Issue 2023

Medicare Advantage insurance plans use AI to determine what care it will cover for its 31 million elderly subscribers in the United States.

Journalists at Stat found that companies are specifically using AI systems to deny coverage for care. The massive problem: the algorithms are a black box that can’t be peered into, making it nearly impossible for patients to fight for health care coverage when they don’t know why they were denied it in the first place.

Community Health and Collective Security Disability Justice Economic Justice
Issue 2024

AI hiring algorithms come complete with dangerous bias.

About 70 percent of companies (and 99 percent of Fortune 500 companies) around the world use AI-powered software to make hiring decisions and track employee productivity. The problem? The tools work by identifying and replicating patterns around who was previously hired, which means they perpetuate the bias embedded in the system, locking marginalized populations out of employment. This is particularly tough for disabled people, people of color, and disabled people of color, who are often subject to employment discrimination.

Disability Justice Economic Justice
Issue 2023

AI could be used to better meet the needs of the disabled, but there are currently many instances where it actively works against the disabled community.

In 2023, researchers at Pennsylvania State University published “Automated Ableism: An Exploration of Explicit Disability Biases in Artificial Intelligence as a Service (AIaaS) Sentiment and Toxicity Analysis Models,” which explores the bias embedded in several natural language processing (NLP) algorithms and models. They found that every single public model they tested “exhibited significant bias against disability,” classifying sentences as negative and toxic simply because they contained references to disability, ignoring context and the actual lived experiences of disabled people.

Community Health and Collective Security Disability Justice

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